Ever wonder how a decanter centrifuge works? To have a full understanding of how a decanter centrifuge operates, we must first define exactly what it does. In many industries, solid and liquid materials mix together, which contaminate water supplies or turn mud into sludge.

What Is A Decanter Centrifuge?

Decanter centrifuges are also known as horizontal bowl centrifuges, centrifugal decanters or decanter machines. These machines are primarily used to separate liquids from large amounts of solids. Decanter centrifuges have become an essential part of water waste facilities and chemical, oil and gas drilling, manufacturing, food processing industries and many more. In fact, without a decanter centrifuge, many companies would become so inefficient they could not carry on their work.

There are many types of decanter centrifuges, such as vertical, horizontal and conveyor centrifuges. The principle behind decanter centrifuges is based on the use of gravitational separation. An example would be if you had a cup of water and mud mixed together; eventually, the weight of the mud would cause it to settle at the bottom of the cup. Thus, there would be a clear separation between water and mud.

How Does A Decanter Centrifuge Work?

A decanter centrifuge separates solids from liquids using a single continuous process, which relies on gravitational force. The process is sped up by the use of continuous rotation. It rotates anywhere from 1,000 to 4,000 times the normal gravitational force, which reduces the time it would take for separation from hours to mere seconds!

When the materials inside the centrifuge are subject to these forces, denser solid particles are pressed out against the rotating bowl wall, while the less dense liquid forms a concentric inner layer. Solid particles are then continuously removed by a screw conveyor, which rotates at a different speed.

The Decanter Process

  • The sludge or slurry is brought into the centrifuge through a pipe and onto a conveyor.
  • The conveyor moves the sludge/slurry through a nozzle into the bowl of the centrifuge.
  • The bowl rotates at high speeds to induce centrifugal forces.
  • High-speed rotation separates the solid material from the liquid in seconds.
  • The conveyor delivers the solids upwards where it is discharged through a nozzle.
  • Once the solid material is removed, the purified liquid is released from a separate output.

Main Sections of Decanter Centrifuges

  • Inlet Zone – Accelerates the feed slurry up to the speed of the bowl.
  • Screw Conveyor – Scrolls the solids efficiently and effectively.
  • Solids Discharge Section – Allows the solids to be removed as effectively as possible.
  • Liquids Discharge Section – Pumps liquids from the decanter.

Decanter centrifuges have a wide range of applications and use. They are ideal for wastewater treatment facilities, oilfield sites, and environmental services, including dredging. There are also many industries where centrifuges play an important role. Most recently, centrifuges have become popular in the hemp industry for the extraction of CBD oils from hemp.

Contact Taber Solids Control in Edmonton for all your centrifuge needs and questions.